Lets see if I can bring some Science and Engineering facts and history to this issue of speed limits on ST tires.
In '60's & '70 when ST type tires were "invented" and started to be applied to Travel Trailers, the national speed limit was 55 mph and tires were bias. Trailers were considered "big" if they were 24' long and I doubt there were many if any 5th wheel tri axle trailers on the road.
Today we see speeds across the country of 70+ and there are many locations where you could set the cruse at 70 and never slow down for an 8 hour drive here in the US. Trailers over 30' are normal with some pushing 40 feet and most have tandem axles with more tripples showing up every day.
The formula for determining the load capacity for all tires follows the basic format
Load = K x (air pressure) x (air volume)
Now the calculation for air volume is the complex part as aspect ratio and a theoretical rim width and other factors such as tread depth come into it but these details do not change the fundamental format of the formula.
The "K" shown above is an important concept as it is really a factor based on the expected service. Trucks are expected to carry heavy loads but not all the time. passenger cars are not expected to be heavily loaded much of the time and while RV are loaded almost all the time, when ST type tires were "invented" we didn't have slide-outs or 35' 5vers or pickups capable of running 80 mph for hours on end.
Standard passenger cars seldom if ever carry their max load. The GVWR and GAWR are not even in every owner's manual or on the Vehicle Certification label AKA "Tire Placard". They are expected to be run at posted speeds but on paved roads for hours on end and driven 10,000 to 20,000 miles a year i.e. used fairly frequently with many being parked in a garage.
For the sake of this discussion lets assume the K is set to 1.0 for passenger cars.
Now what do you do with Station Wagons and other "multi-purpose" vehicles? These vehicles were expected to carry more load more often so the service is obviously more severe. When SUV's came along they were places in the "Multi-purpose category" and if a passenger type tire was applied to a trailer that was also considered more severe service. So the load capacity was reduced. many are aware of the "De-rating of P type tires when used on trailers or SUVs etc. So K (multi-purpose) = K (passenger) divided by 1.10 and we end up with lower load capacity. About 90% of passenger.
Lets look at the actual numbers.
P235/75R15 105S 35 psi
2,028# @ 35 psi 112 mph on a Passenger vehicle
1,844# @ 35 psi 112 mph on an SUV or P/U or trailer
Moving on to Pick-up service we have LT type tires. The formula is still K x pressure x air volume but with trucks expected to carry even more load most of the time their K factor is different.
Their numbers give us
LT235/75R15 101/104Q LR-C
1,985# single 50 psi 99 mph
This lower load capacity on truck service is clearly because the higher percentage time spent carrying more load.
Before we move on lets look at the ST numbers
ST 235/75R15 LR-C
2340# @ 50 psi 65 mph
To me the obvious question should be: How does the addition of the letters "ST" on the sidewall allow a 26% increase in load capacity over a P type tire (adjusted for trailer service)
or a 29% increase over the heavily loaded but occasionally empty truck? The only reason I can see is the significant reduction in speed.
We all know, or should know that more load (more deflection or bending) generates more heat so what could you do to counteract the increase in heat due to the increase in load? Obviously lower the speed would reduce the higher heat and that was part of the original ST tire standard.
Now lets look at the tire type that is of real interest. ST type as used on many RV trailers.
In 2014 new duties were imposed on imported tires but ST type were exempt, sort of. There were various requirements some of which were requested to be changed or eliminated. The speed symbol was one of these requirements.
Starting in 2017 (possibly earlier in small quantities) many ST type tires started showing up with a Speed Symbol selected from the table as published by US Tire & Rim Association in the LT section.
The problem is that Speed Symbol does not have any standard DOT test or requirements as in the US Speed Rating is really a marketing tool and not a strict performance requirement. A review of various ST tires shows a range of speed symbols from L (75 mph) to R (106 mph) and possibly higher.
Further compounding the confusion is that the speed symbols are from the SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers and according to SAE their test criteria J1561 apply to ""standard load," "extra load," and "T-type high-pressure temporary-use spare" passenger tires." This raises the obvious question of what test procedure, if any, are various tire companies following when they assign the Speed Symbol? While we are talking about SAE symbols we need to remember that DOT does not recognize or test for these ratings.
Let me close with a question I have asked a number of times but as of now have never received an answer for.
What "magic" pixie dust are tire companies putting in their ST tires that allows them to run 75 or 81 or even 106 mph without making any adjustments in load or inflation? and If they have this "magic" engineering available, why aren't they using it in their LT tires?
NOTE Goodyear Tire Care Guide (https://www.goodyearrvtires.com/pdfs/tire-care-guide.pdf) clearly shows a blanket 75 mph max speed for 17.5 rim diameter and larger tires.
Some may want to argue that tire technology has improved since 1970 and that is certainly true but I would ask why haven't load capacities for Passenger or LT or heavy truck tires been increased over the past 50 years?
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