My +10% is on the set inflation and is NOT a "Safety Factor" in the normal sense. We know that tire inflation changes by about 2% for each 10°F change in temperature. The intent of this "Flex Range" of inflation is to avoid the need to mess with inflation on a daily basis.
Assume you needed 70 psi to support your heaviest ever expected load (this is why we say get on the scales when fully loaded to your heaviest). So assume you set your inflation to 70 psi and the Ambient temperature is 80F. What happens the next day if the ambient drops to 70F? Your tire pressure will have dropped by 2% to about 68psi which is below what is needed to support the measured heavy load. So you get out and increase your tire pressure back up to 70psi. A few days later it's 90F so tire pressure is now (90F - 70F = 20F so 2% per 10F = 4% increase of the 70 psi so now your tires are at about 73 psi cold so you drop your tire pressure.
See the problem? You are messing around with your tire pressure. almost every day.
However if you have a +10% "Flex Range" above your needed inflation, or in our example +
7 psi You can ignore the day to day pressure variation unless or until
the temperature has dropped 50°F.
Tires can tolerate the increase in pressure with essentially no damage but low pressure can result in increased operating temperature which accelerates the "aging" of the belt rubber which can shorten tire life.
Also if you have to mess with your tires a lot, soon you will tire of the chore and stop monitoring and adjusting tire pressure which can lead to low inflation. This extra work can get old quickly and then you stop checking and setting your pressure. I Do Not Want That to happen.
RE center wear. That was an issue with bias tires but I do wonder what micrometer you are using to measure tire tread wear to 0.001" especially given that tire tread wear is normally in the .001" per 1,000 mile range and I doubt that your pressure remains constant over each thousand miles operation. Road surface (concrete vs asphalt) has a much bigger impact on tread wear.
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